Food security is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. There is a 30-40% global shortfall in the food supply (FAO 2009-2010). Livestock is very important and precious source of food throughout the world. Livestock contributes by about 30% in world food security which will have to be increased by 80%, between 2000-2030. Among livestock breeds, cattle are by far most important source for producing meat and milk as the main food items for the world. Unfortunately, such precious animal genetic resources are under threat. Many cattle breeds are already vanished because of many reasons. Twenty percent of cattle breeds of the world are at risk. The main reason is the introduction of highly specialized cattle breeds of the developed world. Also, indiscriminate crossbreeding of local breeds with specialized breeds especially Holstein Frisian and other superior breeds for productivity threatening indigenous cattle breeds. There is need of conservation of these indigenous precious cattle breeds. The main objective of the breed conservation is food security. One of the best ways for the conservation of indigenous cattle is to improve indigenous cattle breeds with continuous selection and provision of good fee and environment.